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国际航线应如何补贴?看日本政府的补贴形式

来源:欢乐彩_欢乐彩票-老品牌最信誉 民航资源网 作者: 李瀚明 2018-02-28 15:21:30 欢乐彩来说两句(10)

专业分类民航法律 文章编号】34-2019-0027

  

  zaiyuminhangziyuanwangbianjitaolunshiliaoqilehangxianbutiedewenti。“guowaidezhengfubububu?zenmebu?”zheigeshi,kanlaiguoneidetongxingyehenguanzhu。

  ribenzuoweihangkongshiyexiangdangchengshuwenjiandeguojia,zaihangkongbutiededuoyangxingfangmianyeyoufengfujingyan。chuleguotujiaotongsheng(xiajianchengguojiaosheng)zhenduilidao、beihaidao(cujinbeihaidaoneidifangjichangkaihangxinhangxianzhuanyizhifugangyao、《daoneidifangkonggangxinguiluxianyouzhicujinshiyebuzhujinjiaofuyaogang》)dengteshudifangdezhixianhangxianbutiejihuayiwai,guojiaoshenghegedidedifangzhengfuyeduizaidifangjichangkaixingdeguojixian,jiyubutongchengdudebutie。benwenjiangxianggeweijieshaoribendebutiexingshi。

中央政府对地方机场国际线的补贴

欢乐彩  ribenzhenduishaozigaolinghuadewenti,congjiushanyoujifuneigeshidai,jiujiang“xiyinwaiguoguanguangke”zuoweiyixiangguocejinxingfazhan。anbeishangtaihou,jiezhe2020dongjingaoyunhuidedongfeng,gengshijinyibudalifazhanguanguangye,fashiyaobafangriwaiguolvkedeshuliangtishengdaoyinianliangqianwanrenci。

欢乐彩  zheixielvkecongnalilai?oumeishibukenengdele,ribenheoumeizhijiandelvyouhuanlecaiyijinghenmiqiele;lingyifangmian,ribenchudongjingyutian、chengtian、dabanguanxi、mingguwuyounenglikaixingzhoujihangxianyiwai,qitajichangdepaodaozhangduhebaozhangnenglidoubugoubaozhangzhoujihangxian,ruguozhongdianbutiezhouji,zeyou“jiepinjifu”zhixian,shibihuizhaozhixiaodifangdebuman。

欢乐彩  yinci,anbeineigejiangzhongxinfangzailedongnanya、zhongguo、hanguodengdi。chuleduizheixiedifangjiangdiqianzhengxianzhi(ruduitaiguo、yinnishixing15tianmianqian、duihanguo、malaixiya、xinjiapo、gangaotaishixing90tianmianqian、dafujiangdizhongguoneidishenqingrendeqianzhengtiaojian)dengxingzhengshouduanyiwai,yetongguobutiedexingshi,guliguoneiwaihangkonggongsikaixinglaiwangribendehangxian。

欢乐彩  ribenrenjiangquanguodejichangfenwei

  1. zhuyaojichang: yutian、chengtian、guanxi、mingguwuzhongbu、fugang、zhahuangxinqiansui、chongshengneibaqidajichang;

  2. difangjichang: chuzheiqidajichangyiwaidesuoyoujichang。

  根据这一统计,地方机场目前在所有国际入境旅客的数量中仅占5%,约150万人的规模。这不仅使得羽田、成田等机场的时刻极度紧张(这点将另行介绍),也使得外国人大多到访东京、大阪等大城市,不利于地方旅游观光事业的发展。因此,日本的航线补贴计划以来往亚洲和地方机场的中短程窄体航线为主。

日本地方机场国际旅客量占比较低

  zhenduizheiyidian,guojiaoshengfenliangjieduantichulejihua,zhizaibangzhudifangjichangjieshouguojikeren:

  第一阶段的《为了扩大地方机场的着陆架次而进行的机场使用费减免计划》(地方空港におけるインバウンド拡大に向けた着陸料軽減について),以全额返还航空公司的机场使用费为主,为地方机场引流。这一阶段上还是纯现金补贴,与国内的补贴并无二致。

  diyijieduanshishiqueshiyoubushaoguoneiwaihangkonggongsikaihang(rushouerrenchuanhanyahedahanyigongkaile8ge、shanghaipudongdonghangjixiangchunqiuyigongkaile13ge,dayou“ribencuncuntong”zhishi)。dandiyijieduanyebaolulehenduowenti: guojilvkelailezhihou,dangdidehuanjingmeiyougenshang: zaijichang,youciqsheshibuzu,lvkerujingpaidui;huiwaiyudejichanggongzuorenyuanbuzudengwenti;zaishiqu,zeyoulvyoujingdianmeiyouzhongwen、hanwendezhishipai、meiyougonggongchangsuodewi-fideng。

欢乐彩  tongshi,youyujichangshiyongfeianqiluojiacierfeishiyongrencibutie,daozhihangkonggongsiduikaihanghoudexuanchuangongzuoxingweisuoran,cunzaiyidingchengdudeziyuanlangfei。lingyifangmian,suiranmeitishangcunzaizhezhongguoyoukedasigouwude“baomai”xinwen,danguojiaoshengdetongjixianshizheixiexinlvkeduoshuchengdalianjiahangkonggongsilairi,duijiageshifenmingan。

  根据这一分析,国交省在第二阶段中改进了之前纯货币补贴、一视同仁补贴所有航空公司的方法,引入了《关于让地方机场加速开航廉价航空等国际线的一揽子计划》(地方空港におけるLCC等の国際線就航加速パッケージ),将重点聚焦在最近风头无两的廉价航空身上。

欢乐彩  shishishang,zheixielianjiahangkongdechengkeheribenguanguangjihuamiaozhundekequngaoduzhonghe,yi20dao40sui、tongnianshishenshouribenwenhuayingxiang、zaidiannaoheshoujidepeibanxiazhangdadezhongqingnianweizhu。yifangmianzheixienianqingrenjuyouquribenguanguangdexiangfa,duiribenchiyouhaogan;lingyifangmianzheixienianqingrenzaijingjiqifeidehuanjingxiazhangda,chubujubeiledachenglianjiahangkongjinxingchuguolvxingdenengli;zuihou,zaihulianwangxiazhangdadetamen,helianjiahangkongtongguohulianwangxuanchuan、goupiaodeyingyunmoshibumouerhe。

  因此,日本政府除了通过国营的“产业革新投资机构”直接参与到(Peach Aviation,政府初期占股三分之一,之后慢慢退出,现在占股15.1%;大股东为,占股77.9%)的经营中去,大力支持其开行国际廉航航线以外,也通过这一《一揽子计划》支持海外的廉价航空公司开行来往日本的航班。

  《一揽子计划》将全国既有的有CIQ设施的地方机场分为“扩大援助”(有成绩且达到瓶颈,无法进一步发展)、“继续援助”(有成绩,但尚未达到瓶颈)和“扶持援助”(有意向但未着手实施)三类进行补助,将资金倾注到日本国内的基础设施发展和旅游消费者的吸引上。

  在这一计划中,三类机场将获得一整个跨部门协作的“援助包”:

  1. guojiaoshengfuzebutiejichangdejichusheshihuanlecaihehangxianyunzuo,baokuodiqinhuanlecai、chuxuechubing、houjishi、zhijijutai、anjianhexinglichulixitong、langqiao、jiebochedengjichusheshidehuanlecai、shiqujiaotongdegaishandeng;

  2. ruguoguanliju(xiangdangyuhuanlecaiguodebianjian)、shuiguan(haiguan)fuzezaidangdizhaomu、zengpairenshoudaoduiyingjichangzhixingciqjianchagongzuo,tongshifuzejinxinggouwutuishuidenglvyoubianlicuoshi;

欢乐彩  3. guanguangjuliyongyusuanzaihangxiandelingyiduan(lvkelaiyuanduan)jubangongzhonghuodong,bingzaigongzhongmeitishangdaguanggao:

JNTO上海事务所做的静冈、富山旅游广告

欢乐彩  tu: jntoshanghaishiwusuozuodejinggang、fushanlvyouguanggao——donghangyoumeiriyibanjingganghangxian、shanghangyoumeizhouliangbanfushanhangxian

JNTO香港事务所在Facebook打的广告

欢乐彩  tu: jntoxianggangshiwusuozaifacebookdadeguanggao: ganghanghegeyoumeiriyibanluerdaohangxian。

  同时,对着陆费用等的补贴,由传统的“按架次算”改为“按乘客量计算”,直接反映在旅客机票上的税费减免,不再支付给航空公司

欢乐彩  tongguozheiyangdezhengce,ribenderujinglvkeshuchengxianlenian20%zuoyoudekuaisuzengzhang:

日本全体入境旅客、出境旅客数变化

  biaotiyiwei“ribenquantirujinglvke、chujinglvkeshubianhua”,lanxianweirujinglvke,hongxianweichujinglvke。tuzhongkejianribenchujinglvkerenshuzongtibaochiwending,danrujinglvkerenshuzejiejiepansheng,xianshianbeibutiezhengcedechengxiao。

  yucitongshi,zaidifangjichangchuxiandelvkeliangsinianneizhijiefanbei,nianjunzengzhanglvwei20%,jibenheribenquanguoyizhi,meiyouxingchengshuniujichangdudadexianxiang。

日本国土交通省资料截图

欢乐彩  zaihangxianwangluoshang,difangjichangdeguojixianfugaiyehenbucuo: rudezhongguohangxianjiyoutaibei、shanghai、hangzhou、ningbo、wuhan、yantai、xiandengchengshi,yiranchengweichuzhuyaojichangzhiwaidelingyixuanze。

  zheiyangkanlaisuanshiqudelexiangdangbucuodechengji,dantongshiyebaoluchuleyixiexinwenti。biru,difangjichangdehangkonggongsifenbubuzuyimanzuguojilvke“buzouhuitoulu”dexuqiu。rubushaochengkehuixuanze“dongjingjindabanchu”zheiyangdehangxian,danruguojingyoudifangjichangrujing,zehangkonggongsidecuoweishidebuyidingnenggoushixiankaikouchengjipiao。

  duiyuzheiyangdewenti,ribenrenjiangcichengwei“xingchengliantiao”,weituodaxuejiaoshouyunyongshuxuegongjujiayixitongxingfenxi,danmuqianrengchuyuchubujieduan,meiyouheshidejiejuefangan。

数学分析

  同时,日本人也对来日外国人的旅行特性和消费习惯进行分析,以便进一步优化补贴方向。

四大机场的中国(含港澳台)和韩国旅客分析

欢乐彩  shangtushisidajichangdezhongguo(hangangaotai)hehanguolvkefenxi,kejianzhongguodaluyouke“baomai”demingshengjuefeilangdexuming(xiao)。jiexialaihuanlecaijiangjieshaodifangzhengfudebutie,bingtishitahezhongyangzhengfubutiedechayi。

地方政府对地方机场国际线的补贴

欢乐彩  difangjichangdeguojixianchuleweiwaiguolvkejinrudifangjichangtigonglebianlizhiwai,yeshidedifangqiyenenggougengfangbiandiquhaiwaikaizhanyewu、shiminkeyifangbiandichuguolvxing、difangshangjuyoutesedechanpin,yenenggoutongguoguojihuoyunkaituogengdadeshichang。

  地方政府决策的主要考虑因素有三:

  1. ribendifangzhengfudesuirulaiyuanzhuyaoweixiaofeishui、zhuminshui、chechuanshuidengyuminzhongshenghuozhijiexiangguandeshuishou,ruguobutieshouduanbuweiminzhonglijie,huizhijiezhaozhixianmin“lanyonggongtang”、“quandizifei”dezhizhai。

  2. difangzhengfudeshuishouyouxian,xiaochengshizhuojinjianzhoudecaizhengshidetamenbukenengxiangzhongyangzhengfuyiyangzhangpiandalundijinxingdiaoyankaochafenxi,bixujinkenengjiangdibutiezhengcedezhidingheweichichengben,zuidaxianduliyongzijin;

  3. difangzhengfumingbaizhongyangzhengfuzaicujinlvke“zoujinlai”shang,yijingtongguozhuwaishilingguanheguotujiaotongshengzuoledaliangyouchengxiaodegongzuo,yincibutiezhengcedezhongdianyingdangjinlibuyuzhongyangzhengfuchongtu,bimianziyuanlangfei。

  与国交省聚焦于“让外国游客走进来”不同,地方政府对地方机场的国际线进行补贴,更多是注重“让地方的市民走出去”。因此地方政府更注重于,将本地的税收用在对本地企业和团体在购买机票或签订货运合同时的直接货币补贴上,从而鼓励民众出国“看世面”,企业出国“谈生意”,进一步欢乐彩地方经济增长

欢乐彩  liru,jiuzhoudaoshangyigongqiniurouwenming,youzheshouer、taibei、xianggangsantiaoguojihangxiandegongqixian,jiuduijingyoudangdidejichangzhijieyunwanghaiwaidehuowuyuyimeigongdunsanwanriyuandebutie。tongshi,gongqixianduiyuliyongqianwanghaiwaidexueshengyouxuetuanti、lvxingtuan、shangwulvxingdeng,zaihuzhaoshenqing、jipiaofeiyongshangdouyousuobutie(http://www.miyazaki-apc.jp/hojo/):

  1. duiyutongguoxianneidelvxingshe,goumaileconggongqijichangchufaqianwanghaiwaidejipiaodexianneijumin,keyitongguo“xianneijuminshenlinghuzhaobutiejihua”baoxiao5000riyuandehuzhaoshenqingfei(ribenhuzhaodeshenqingfeishi16000riyuan);duiyu29suiyixiadeqingnianshoucishenqingde,keewaibaoxiao1000riyuan。

  2. duiyujinggongqijichangzhifeiqianwanghaiwaidexueshengtuantilvxing,meiweixueshengzuiduokeyitongguo“quanqiurencaiyangchenghaiwaijiaoyuhuanlecaiyouxuebutiejihua”huodebuzhu14000riyuan;(kankanribenrendemingming,zhenshirangfanduibutiezheyijuhuadoushuobuchulai)

欢乐彩  3. duiyuxianneiqiyeqianwanghaiwaidechuchacanzhanyanxiudenghuodong,meiweizhiyuanzuiduokeyitongguo“guojixianshangwuhuodongbutiejihua”huodebuzhu10000riyuan;

欢乐彩  4. canjiadangdidelvxingsheshejidetongguogongqijichangwangfanhaiwaidexingchengdemeiweiyouke,keyitongguo“guojixiantuantilvyoubuzhujihua”lingdaobuzhu5000riyuan。

宫崎县广告

欢乐彩  jiezhegongqixianzhengfubutiededongfeng,xianneidelvxingshekailebushaoconggongqizhijiechufadexianlu: shangfangweishouer3riyou、shouer4riyou、shouer3riyou;xiafangweitaibei4riyou、taibei4riyou、falankefu(jingshouer)8riyou。

欢乐彩  lingwaiyiti,gongqijichangdaoshouerdewangfanpiaojiayibanshi17000riyuandaoliangwanriyuan。yinci,zhengfujiujipiaojinxingdebuzhu,lidukeyishuoshixiangdangdale:

日本地方政府机票补助

  shangfangshi“huzhaoshenlingbutiejihua”he“tuanduilvxingbutiejihua”dexuanchuan;zhongjianweihanyazhifeide19800riyuandeshouerwangfanjipiaoheyisidahangkongzhifeide8000riyuandeshouerwangfanjipiao;xiafangweizhifeide27000yuantaibeiwangfanjipiaohemanguwangfanjipiao。

  tongyangweiyujiuzhoudeluerdaoxian,kaichudebutietiaojianyedazhixiangtong,xianshizheishiribengedifangzhengfudegongshi:

  1. duiyuxianneiqiyeqianwanghaiwaidechuchacanzhanyanxiudenghuodong,meiweizhiyuanzuiduokeyihuodebuzhu15000riyuan;

欢乐彩  2. duiyujingzhifeiwanghaiwaidexueshengtuantilvxing,meiweixueshengzuiduokeyihuodebuzhu11000riyuan;

  jiuzhoudexiongbenxianshenzhituichuletedingluxianxiuxuelvxingbutie,hangaihanguo、taiwanheguangxisandi(bizheduoniannandejiandaoguangxichuxian,jingchaxiongbenheguangxishiyouhaoquxian,daoguilin/nanningyoushuqixiuxuelvxingzhuanyongbaoji)。

  qitaxianyeyouleisibutietiaojian。

  直接货币补贴确实是卓有成效的方法:

欢乐彩  yifangmian,xianjinbutieshixianmin“kandejianmodezhe”debutie,weizhengfumianquleguatianlixiadexianyi,jiangdilebutieshixingdegongzhongzuli;

欢乐彩  lingyifangmian,xianjinbutieshidezijinnenggouzaizijidexiannei“dazhuan”,keyicujinxianneijingjidefazhan。liru,butiexianminzinvchuguoyouxue,chulezuihouzhifeidehangkonggongsihuoyiwai,haikeyibutiedangdidelvxingshe,gengkeqiangzhan“cujinzonghesuzhijiaoyu”zheiyihuayuquangaodi;butiexianneiqiyechuguocanzhan,chulelvxingshe,haikeyizengqiangxianneijingjidejingzhengli,“gaishanhuanlecaixianxingxiang”;butiehangkongwuliuchukoukeyishundaibutiehuoyundaili、diqin、wuliudengyixiliechanye。

欢乐彩  shishishang,xianjinbutiequeshidazhonglexianmindetongdian: ribendehenduoxiaochengzhenlidezhongxuesheng,shishishangshimeiyouchuguoguode: youyujiazhangdewaiyunenglibuhao,shideziyouxingjihuchenglebukenengdeshiqing,shidechuguojihuiyituantilvxingweizhu,youyixiuxuelvxingweishen。

欢乐彩  danzheixiexiuxuelvxingyouyiguoneiweizhu: zaikaihangzhifeizhiqian,haiwaixiuxuelvxingxuyaoqudongjing、dabandengdachengshizhuanjicainengchuguo。yifangmianyutianzhuanchengtian、yidanzhuanguanxizheizhongliuchengjiqibubiandezhuanjisheji,shidebanzhurenlaoshiquanchengpeibanxueshengshideshenxinfudanjizhong,dailailejiaozhigongyanzhongdedichuqingxu;lingyifangmiandachengshideguojijipiaoyouyugaoqidexuqiuhechenglirendegaogoumaili,queshiyeshijiazhangbuxiaodefudan。

  yinci,difangyouguojixianzhifei,jiashangzhengfubutiexianminzinvchuguoyouxuezheiyidian,keyishuodadajiangdilejiazhanghelaoshidefudan。shishishang,difangjichangmijideyazhouhangxian,shidejishijiuduzaixuefeibianyidegonglixuexiaodeshisheng,yenengquhaiwaiyouxuele。yitaiwanshengweili,2016nianqutaiwanxiuxuelvxingdexueshengrenshu,zhengzhengbiququanmeiguo(baokuoxiaweiyi、guandaohebentu48zhou)dexueshengzongshujiaqilaihaiyaoduo。qizhongkeyikandao,gonglixuexiaodemudediyiyazhouquyuweizhu,ermeijiaaoxinzejuedaduoshudoushisilixuexiaodexuesheng。

日本高中生海外游学目的地

  zheiyangdehuiminzhengce,shidehangxianbutiefanganyiluchangxingwuzu;tongshi,youxuexiaokeliuzuoweibaodizheiyidian,yeshidehangkonggongsinenggoutigongwendingdehuanlecai,weiqiyeheqitakerentigongfangbian。yisiguodaoshangdelaiwangshanghai、xianggangdehangxianhuanlecaiweili,genjuxiangchuanxianzhengfuyuanwen,ribendetuantiyoukehezhongguodegerenyouke,shidegaosonglaiwangxianggangdehangbanshangzuolvdadaole85%,laiwangshanghaidadaole82%,heguoneixian(dongjingyutian72%、chengtian84%)bufenbozhong。

日本国际航线信息

总结日本的补贴形式

日本补贴形式


国内航空补贴的困境

  guoneiersanxianchengshidongyongshengshijizhengfucaizheng,yixianjinxingshibutieguoneiwaihangkonggongsikaitongzhoujihangxianweizhu。zheiyimoshizaiguoneishixingzaozhidezhuyaofeiyishi

  1. “bufenhangqiwenguoshifei,yilaibutiefenshicaiwubaobiao”

  2. “dongyongguorendeqianjiangguorenlvxingtuansongchuqu”

欢乐彩  3. “hangxianyilaibutie,meiyoubutiejiufanlian”

  bizhezongguanguoneiduizhoujihangxianbutiedemude,wufeishi“xiyinwaizi”、“xiyinguanguangke”liangdaliyou。

  danxiangduiyuzhijiebutiehangkonggongsi,qishigaishantouzihuanjing,zhijieliyongdashiguan、lingshiguandengzaiwaigongguanhewaijiaodaibiaojigouzuoweiguojiachuangkou,zhijiezhenduiwaiguotouzizhejinxingxuanchuanshigenghaodebanfa。liru,ribenzhengfuqixiayouzhuanmenderibenmaoyizhenxingjigou(jetro),tongshiwei“ribenqiyezouchuqu”he“waiguotouzizhezoujinlai”liangfangmiantigonghuanlecai,zhizaiweiheyanghuanlecaitigongqiaoliang。

  jetroqixiadewaizihuanlecaibumendazaole“invest japan”(touziriben)pinpai,tongguohaiwaishelijudian、yanjianghui、guanggaodengxingshi,dazaoribendeguojipinpai。

  jetro zaizhongguoquyutigongdebangongshidizhi,kegongzhongguoqiyeqianwangribentouzishitigongxiezhu。tongshikeyikanchujetrozhenduizhongguoqiyetouziribendezhuyaoxuqiu。

  keyishuo,ribenzhongyangzhengfuhezaiwaigongguandemiqiepeihe,weiribendazaolelianghaodetouzixiyinhuanjing。zheishideribenbuxuyaokeyibutiezhoujihangxian,yenengyuanyuanbuduanxiquhaiwaitouzi,gulihaineiwaijishuhezuo。

欢乐彩  lingwai,meiguoyezaizhuwaishiguanxiasheyou“xuanzemeiguo”zhuanti,weiwaiguotouzizhetigongxuanchuanxinxi:

选择美国官方网站

  “xuanzemeiguo”guanwangkaizongmingyi,zhichumeiguoshishijieshangzuidadedanyishichang。

  shishishang,huanlecaiguojiayezaibuduannuli——zhongguoyou“meilizhongguo”guanfanglvyoujieshaowangzhan,tigongyingfarihanewuzhongwaiyu;shangwubuyezaigezhuwaishilingguansheyoushangwucanzanchu,fuzechulizhongguoheduiyingguojiazhijiandeshangwuwanglaishiyi。2016nian,shangwubufabule《zhongguoshengshishangwugailan》,jieshaogeshengdetouzihuanjing、zhuyaochanyeheremenxuqiu,kexizheifenbaogaobingwuwaiyubanben。

《中国省市商务概览》

  只有充分将中央政府的这一资源为地方政府所用,降低地方政府吸引外资和外国游客的门槛,才能在不花费纳税人资金补贴国际航线的情况下,真正提高地方在外国投资者和游客心中的印象,避免“花钱送国人出国”和“补贴烧完就翻脸”的问题。

  另一方面,“花钱请外国人送国人出国”其实并非坏事。日本地方政府的补贴经验告诉欢乐彩,合理利用补贴,资助地方企业“走出去”办展、洽谈、做生意、资助地方学生出国学习旅行见世面,都是合情合理的资金利用方向。尤其是在国际化视野越来越重要的今天,鼓励学生出国参加竞赛、演出、论文展示等学术活动,是利于提升下一代竞争力的好事,可谓功德无量。

  但要真正做到“资金用到刀刃上”,实现资金的高效利用,地方政府就必须改变现有的粗放式货币补贴形式,从单纯、直接地用货币补贴供给端的航空公司、转为通过综合性的三驾马车: 改善地方的基础设施、海外的据点和宣传、针对性补贴地方企业和学生来间接补贴国际航线

  事实上,国际航线的开航,同样遵循最基本的市场规律——需求和供给之间互相促进。笔者在合肥机场的第二篇文章《小城市机场机遇:美二线机场怎么利用支线航空发展》下和网友欢乐彩时,就指出夏洛特机场的本地客户提供了国内航线需要的第一批客流,而中转带来的访问便利性又带来了更多的本地企业,从而形成了互帮互助的良性循环。

总结

  国际航线补不补贴这个问题,日本人给出了明确的答案: 该补。但日本人在补贴中秉持的“抓住最需要补贴的地方,分析其痛点”、“以综合补贴取代货币补贴、以长期计划取代短期补贴”、“以补贴消费者取代补贴经营者欢乐彩”的思路,配合良好的中央-地方合作和跨部门协作,使得日本的航线补贴达成了极佳的效果。

  lingyifangmian,“butiexueshenghaiwailvxing”、“butieqiyechuguocanzhan”、“butiehangkonghuowuchukou”zheijidazhenduixingjiqiangdecaozuo,keyishuoshibimianle“huaqiansongguorenchuguo”zheiyiguoneipipingzheduihangxianbutiezuijingdiandezhizhai,keweishiribenjuecezheyingduigongzhongyali,duizhengcejinxingweidiao,zuoshibuluorenkoushidelianghaolizi。

欢乐彩  duiyuguoneizuixiwangde“zhaoshangyinzi”he“tishengchengshixingxiang”,ribenrenzeshiliyongqiangdadezhuwaishilingguanwangluo,tongguodazao“touziriben”zheiyipinpai,jianghaiwaishilingguanbianweiguoneichengshidetianranyinzichuangkou。yinci,zaifazhandifangjichangdehangxianshang,youzhelaizizhongyangzhengfuhezhuwaishilingguandedalizhichi,congerkeyicongrongdefazhanbendichanye,bimianlangfeigongtang。

欢乐彩  huanlecaiguoyizhiyi“jizhongliliangbandashi”zuoweishehuizhuyideyouyuexingerdalixuanchuan。huanlecaiyouzhezuidaguimodezhuanyizhifu、youzhe“xibudakaifa”dengjuxingfazhanguihua、youzheshijieshangzuidaguimodejingji、yeyouzheshijieshangdierdafugaidezhuwaishilingguanwangluo。xianzaijiushizhengfuxiuchushouwanhenaodai,zhengmingjishijiehuanlecaidexiediaonenglihejueceshuipingdeshihoule。

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