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拓展第五航权 澳门欢乐彩“世界旅游休闲中心”

来源:欢乐彩_欢乐彩票-老品牌最信誉 民航资源网 作者: 胡汉新 2015-05-12 21:05:55 欢乐彩来说两句(3)

专业分类规划发展 文章编号】30-2016-0097

  

  guojia“shierwu”guihuabaaomendefazhandingweiwei“shijielvyouxiuxianzhongxin”,erguojijichangyoushi“shijielvyouxiuxianzhongxin”bibukeshaodejiaotongyingjian。

欢乐彩  1995nian12yueluochengqiyongdeaomenguojijichang,bujiuqianyinglailezhengshiyingyunershizhouniandedaqingrizi。guanxinaomendepengyoudouzhuyidao,suiranaomenguojijichangjinqideyejixiangdangkeguan: keyunliangchixuzengzhang、jichangzhuanyinggongsidecaiwuzhuangkuangchixuhaozhuan、hangxianbuduanzengjia,danyu“shijielvyouxiuxianzhongxin”deyaoqiuhaiyouxiangdangdadechaju。

  aomenmianjibuda,difangyouxian,lvyoushichangxuyaoyoucong“liang”dao“zhi”dezhuanbian,jichangjihangkongyunshushichangfazhanshiguanjian。jici,tequzhengfuweilaixumianlinlvyoushichangjiegouxingdecelvezhuanyi。mianduijudadeshijielvyoufuchang,huanlecaikeyifajuehangkongyunshuqianli,zhengheziyuantuidongfazhan,yixiyinshijiegedilvkelaiao,jieryanshenzheileikeyuanliuaodeshijian,cujinlvyouxiaofeizengzhang。

  duiguojikeyuanlaishuo,aomenshizhongjuyoupodaxiyinli,qiyishiaomendutedezhongxilishiwenhuadiyun,qiershilvyoubocaizonghesheshiwanshan。erwulunlvyoufangshishi“gerenyou”、jianglilvyouhuoshangwulvyou,aomendoushiyizhang“dutemingpai”,yongyoujudadeqianli。yishangwuhuiyiweili,youhuizhanyezheyujidao2020nianbendihuiyishumukebeifandao2000ge,jiangdailaidapishangwuke。ruguogaipigaoduanxiaofeikehuliuaoshijianyanzhang,dailaidejingjixiaoyiheduibenaolvyoufuchangshengjizhuanxingdecuihuazuoyongjunshiwuyijiliangde,erzhuandedoushilaizishijiegedidexiaofei。

  nianqianyoubaodaotidao,aomenguojijichangjinnianliyongaomende“diwuhangquan”tuozhanshichang,mangu——aomen——boliuhangxianjiushiliyongaomende“diwuhangquan”kaitong。youxuezhebiaoshi,yi“diwuhangquan”tuozhanhangkongshichangkemibuzhihanghangbankeyuanbuzudewenti,quanqiudouzailiyong“diwuhangquan”tuozhanhangxianwangluo,yishidashisuoqu,guaomenyingjiakuaituozhan“diwuhangquan”deyoushi,bimianbeibianyuanhua。

  aomenguojijichangzhuanyinggongsizaoqianbiaoshi,jinnianlai,aomenguojijichanggulihangkonggongsijijiyunyongaomenkaifangde“diwuhangquan”tuozhanhangkongshichang,yichujianchengxiao。suotuichudemangu——aomen——boliuhangxian,shichangfanyinglixiang,weiaomenlvyouzhuruxinhuoli,jifabendiyijizhoubiandiqujumingengduoshiyongaomenguojijichangchuyou。

欢乐彩  zaizheili,huanlecaichangshitantaoaomenguojijichangyoumeiyoutuozhan“diwuhangquan”detiaojian,yijituozhan“diwuhangquan”duihuanlecai“shijielvyouxiuxianzhongxin”youheyingxiang?

  各地逐步开放“第五航权”

  随着中国内地改革开放不断深化和经济腾飞,原有的民航制度已难以再适应民航企业的发展了。因此,在国家民航局欢乐彩支持下,内地一些主要城市纷纷开放了“第五航权”。以下是一些著名的例子:

  哈尔滨国际机场: 2015年9月18日凌晨,从俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡飞往哈尔滨的U6755航班降落在哈尔滨太平国际机场,标志着中国东北首条“第五航权”航线: 叶卡捷琳堡经哈尔滨至曼谷正式开通。哈尔滨成为中国东北第一个开放“第五航权”的城市。这是俄罗斯乌拉尔航空公司利用中俄航空会谈中的航权安排,率先在哈尔滨机场开通首条“第五航权”航线。

  “第五航权”是指一个国家或地区的航空公司在经营某条国际航线的同时,获得在中途第三国装载旅客、货物的许可,允许飞机在第三国中途经停、上下旅客和装卸货物,是极具经济意义的航权。俄罗斯乌拉尔航空公司开通的叶卡捷琳堡经哈尔滨至曼谷定期国际正班航线,每周一班,用空客A320机型执飞,每周六的23:45从俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡起飞,周日凌晨05:35到达哈尔滨,07:00从哈尔滨起飞,13:35到达泰国首都曼谷;周一凌晨01:05从曼谷起飞,07:45到达哈尔滨,08:45从哈尔滨起飞,15:35抵达叶卡捷琳堡。

欢乐彩  “diwuhangquan”dekaifangyiweizhehaerbinjichangguojihangkongyunshumaijinlexindeshidai,gaihangxiandekaitongweihaerbinyueluosi、dongnanyadajianlehangkongyunshutongdao,shihaerbinzaijianfuyuandongduiemenhuzhizedetongshi,shengjiweiliantongeluosiyudongnanyadeshuniuzhan。

  郑州机场: 2015年5月18日,河南省的郑州机场首开“第五航权”,实现“环球飞”。经民航局批准,郑州机场携手卢森堡货航开通了卢森堡—郑州—芝加哥航线,该航线横跨欧、亚、美世界三大最主要经济区域,使郑州成为欧美之间重要的航空货运节点城市。

  郑州机场首开“第五航权”航线,源于国家民航局对“郑州——卢森堡”双枢纽战略发展的支援。2015年1月21日,时任国家民航局局长李家祥在北京会见卢森堡可持续发展与基础产业部部长弗朗索瓦·鲍施时,双方签订了“航空运输合作谅解备忘录”,为郑州对卢货航开放“第五航权”打下重要基础。

  通过“第五航权”,卢森堡货航执飞的货机从卢森堡装载货物之后,在郑州机场可进行二次装卸,并直飞芝加哥机场,而无须折返欧洲;返程时在芝加哥机场完成装卸任务后,同样在郑州拥有再次集散及调整货物的权利,最大限度地集散了三大洲物流货物,为承运人和货代企业安排货源提供了更大的选择余地和更灵活的操作空间。

  xuanze“diwuhangquan”zhuangzaisandihuowu,keyibimianyunlilangfei。kaifang“diwuhangquan”,biranbansuihuowuzhuanjiliangtigao,zheijiangchengweizhengzhoujichangjinshenguojihangkongshuniudeyoulitiaoban。erzaihangkongyenei,duiyuhangkongshuniuyouzheiyangyigerendingchidu: jichangfeijizhuanjilianggaoyu30%。

  zhengzhoujichang“diwuhangquan”dekaifangyijizhifeimeiguohangxiandekaitong,xiyinleshanghaizhongxiwuliuyouxiangongsicongzhagenshanghaidaoyishizhongyuan。gaigongsifuzerenfengjiaqintoulu: xinhangxianyuluhuohangxianyouhangxianwangluwufengduijie,wanmeigouchengle“huanqiufei”dehuiquanwanglu,wulunshichengyunrenhaishijichang,doukeyizuidaxianduliyonghangbanheshiketigaoshouyi。

欢乐彩  dangqian,conglusenbaozhuangzaidehuowuzhuyaolaiziouzhou;congzhengzhoujisandehuowufanweifugaidabangezhongguodewuliumaoyiquyu;daodazhijiagejichanghou,youjiangxunsuzhuanyunbeimeidongbudiquhenanmeizhuyaoguojiajichengshi。luhuohangceodeke·liqibiaoshi,sanzhoufudi,juyoujujishijiesandajingjiquyuhuowudetianranquweiyoushi,xinhangxianduihuoyuehetuidongdangdijingjifazhanjuyoubukeguliangdezuoyong。xinhangxianguantongsandazhoufudi,qiezhengzhoujuzhong,“yidianliansanzhou”deduyoujiaose,jiangzhengzhouhangkonggangdeduiwaikaifangchengdutishengdaoxindecengci。dangdiyejierenwei,jinhoubujinnengxiyinzhongguoneididehuowugengkuaigengduodihuijuzhengzhoujichang,jinerfusheoumei。tongshiyeshioumeihuowuwanglaidebiyouzhilu,shibijidatigaojichangdehuoyunliangyujingzhengli,daidonghangkongguanlianchanyedefazhan,zhutuihenandajianyigecanyuguojifengong、goujiankaifanggaodidexinpingtai。

  《芝加哥公约》及各种航权

  huanlecaishaoshaolejieyixia《zhijiagegongyue》yugezhonghangquan。

  1944nian12yue,quanqiu52geguojiadaibiaozaizhijiagejuxingleguojiminyonghangkonghuiyi,zuihouqiandingde《guojiminyonghangkonggongyue》(yejiaozuo《zhijiagegongyue》),guidingmeiyidiyueguojiyuqitadiyueguoyixialiedingqiguojihangbandekongzhongziyou:

  diyihangquan: lingkongfeiyuequan,bujiangtingerfeiyueqilingtudequanli;

  dierhangquan: jishujiangluoquan,feishangyexingjiangtingdequanli;

欢乐彩  disanhangquan: mudedixiakequan,xiexialaizihangkongqiguojiguolingtudelvke、huowu、youjiandequanli;

  disihangquan: mudedishangkequan,zhuangzaiqianwanghangkongqiguojiguolingtulvke、huowu、youjiandequanli;

欢乐彩  diwuhangquan: yanyuanquan、disanguoyunshuquan,zhuangxieqianwanghuolaizirenheqitadiyueguolingtudelvke、huowu、youjiandequanli。

  zheijiushi“hangquan”deyoulai。buguo,dangshichengwei“kongzhongziyou”(freedoms of the air)huocheng“tequan”(privileges)。zhihou,zaishijianzhongcaifazhancheng“hangquan”(traffic rights)degainian,bingxiangjifazhancheng“diliu、qi、ba、jiuhangquan”。

  diliuhangquan: qiaoliangquan,guojiminhangzuzhidedingyishizhishuangbianhangkongxiedingyidiyueguodezhidingkongyunqiye,chengyunquanlijiyuguo(diyuelingyifang)lingtuyudisanguolingtujiandeyewu,erzaigaikongyunqiyesuoshuguolingtushangjiangtingdeqingxing;

欢乐彩  diqihangquan: wanquandisanguoyunshuquan,zhiyiguodechengyunrenwanquanzaiqimuguolingtuyiwaijingying、zaihangkongqidengjiguozhiwaidelianggewaiguozhijianyunsonglvke、huowu、youjiandequanli;

  dibahangquan: wanquandisanguoyunshuquan,zhiyiguodechengyunrenzaiwaiguolingtuneideliangdianzhijianyunsonglvke、huowu、youjiandequanli。

  dijiuhangquan: ruguojiangshangshu“dibahangquan”youfenwei“lianxudeguoneizaiyunquan”he“feilianxudeguoneizaiyunquan”liangzhongxingtai。neime,qianzheshi“dibahangquan”,houzhebianchengle“dijiuhangquan”le。

  “diwuhangquan”zaigezhonghangquanzhongshuyubijiaofuza,yeshineirongzuifengfudehangquan。“diwuhangquan”youchengzuo“diwuzhongquanli”huo“disanguoyunshuquan”,jichengyunrenqianwanghuodezhunxudeguojia,bingjiangcongdisanguozaiyundekehuoxiedaogaiguo,huozheconggaiguozaiyunkehuoqianwangdisanguo。

  diyizhong: chengyunrenbenguo(diyiguoshifadi)——zhongtujingtingdisanguo——mudediguo(dierguo)。

  chengyunrencongbenguoyunshukehuodaolingyiguojiashizhongtujingguodisanguo(yejiushishifadiguojiahemudediguojiayiwaideqitaguojia),bingbeiyunxujiangtujingdisanguojiezaidekehuoxiedaomudediguo。zheizhongquanlishi“diwuhangquan”deyizhong。biruzhongguohexinjiapodeshuangbianxiedingyunxuzhongguochengyunrenzaidongnanyaxuanzeyidianzuoweizhongtujingtingdian,bingkeyijiangdangdidekehuojiezaidaoxinjiapo。zheiyangduizhongguochengyunrendexinmatailvyouyunshujiufeichangyouli,yigehangbanshangjikeyiyouzhongguozhixinjiapodelvke、yekeyiyoutaiguoxinjiapodelvke,tongshiyinweizhongguozhitaiguobenlaiyoudisan、sihangquan,suoyitongshihaiyouzhongguozhitaiguodelvke。lvxingshezaizuzhixinmataiyoudeshihoujiukeyixuanzetongyijiagongsichengdansuoyoudehangcheng,feichangyoujingzhengli,bingqiefangbianlvke。ruguomeiyou“diwuhangquan”,xinmataiyouzhishaoyaozhaoliangjiagongsichengyun。dannengfoushunlidexingshi“diwuhangquan”,haiyaoyouzhongtujingtingguojiazhengfudetongyi。

  dierzhong: chengyunrenbenguo(diyiguoshifadi)——mudediguo(dierguo)——yiyuandiandisanguo。

欢乐彩  “diwuhangquan”dedierzhongshiyiyuandianguojiadeyunshu,chengyunrenjiangzijiguojiashifadekehuoyundaomudediguojia,tongshiyoubeiyunxucongmudediguojiashangkehuo,bingbeiyunxuyundaolingyiguojia。haishijuxinmataidelizi,zhongguohetaiguodeshuangbianxiedingtongyizhongguochengyunrenjiangtaiguodekehuoyunwangdongnanyadelingyigeguojia,bingtongyijiangdongnanyalingyigeguojiadekehuoyundaotaiguo。zheiyang,zhongguochengyunrenxuanzelexinjiapo,jiuzuchenglezhongguo——taiguo——xinjiapohangxian。

欢乐彩  youcikejian,zhiyouzaitongshijuyouzheiliangzhong“diwuhangquan”shi,chengyunrencaikeyiwanzhengdeshiyongzheixiequanli。fouze,jishihuodeleqizhongzhiyi,yehennancaozuo。

  “diwuhangquan”shizhenduilianggeguojiadeshuangbianxiedingeryande,zailiangguodexiedingzhongyunxuduifangxingshiyouguandisanguoyunshudequanli。danshizaimeiyoudisanguotongyideqingkuangxia,zheigequanlidengyumeiyou。yincihangkonggongsizaiyongzheigequanlideshihou,birantongshiyaokaolvzhongguoyuzheige“disanguo”youmeiyouxiangyingdequanli。

欢乐彩  “diwuhangquan”zhisuoyifuza, jiushiyinwei,tashejidaoduogeshuangbianxieding,bingqiezaibutongdexiedingzhongyiweizhebutongzhongleidehangquan。

  “diwuhangquan”yebeichengwei“disanguoyunshuquan”。chengyunrencongbenguoyunshukehuodaolingyiguoshikeyijiangdisanguo(yejiushishifadiguojiahemudediguojiayiwaideqitaguojia)zuoweizhongdianzhanshangxiakehuo,zaidaodamudediguo;huozhechengyunrenjiangzijiguojiashifadekehuoyundaoxieyiguojia,shangkehuohoukeyiyundaodisanguo。

  利用“第五航权”的实例

  zaiguojihangkongyunshushichangdechuantongshang,hangkonghuanlecaidetanpanyizhizaiyangedefalvjichushangyugeguoxunqiujiaohuan“quanli”。zheixiequanlikeyishiduihangkonggongsijinrubendishichangdejijiyinjin,yekeyishibeidongdexianzhi。ertadejiazhiqujueyuzhengfuduihangkongyunshushichangdecelve,yijihangkonggongsibenshenruheliyongtamendehangxianwangluo。mouxieguojiaweichuangzaogengkeguandehangkongshouyi,daidongdiqujingjifazhan,huixiezhudangdihangkonggongsicaiqujucelvexingdehangkongyunshutanpan。tongshi,zheixieguojiahuishishiceliangjijiantaomuqiandehangkongyunshuzhengce,yangekongzhihangkonggongsidesuoyouquanjiguquan,yanjiuhangkongshouyihechengbenbianhua,yunxuhangkonggongsizhijiandehebinghuolianmeng,yifangbianhangkonggongsidui“diwuhangquan”delinghuoshiyong。

  1、中华航空公司由纽约肯尼迪至大阪(JFK-KIX)航线约11178公里,飞行时长14小时20分钟,使用波音747-400飞机。之后航班将继续飞往台北(TPE)。JFK-KIX-TPE整个航程约18小时40分钟。

  2、新加坡航空公司由三藩市至香港(SFO-HKG)航线约11148公里,飞行时长约14小时20分钟,使用波音777-300ER飞机。之后航班继续飞往新加坡(SIN)。SFO-HKG-SIN整个航程约19小时30分钟。

  3、大韩航空公司由圣保罗至洛杉矶(GRU-LAX)航线约9907公里,飞行时长约12小时30分钟,使用波音777-300ER飞机。之后航班继续飞往首尔仁川机场(ICN)。FRU-LAX-ICN整个航程耗时达27小时40分钟,包含在洛杉矶2小时的停留时间。

  4、泰国国际航空公司由洛杉矶至首尔仁川(LAX-ICN)航线约9646公里,飞行时长约12小时35分钟,使用波音777-200飞机。之后航班继续飞往泰国曼谷(BKK)。LAX-ICN-BKK整个航程耗时19小时50分钟。

  5、长荣航空公司由曼谷至伦敦希思罗(BKK-LHR)航线约9588公里,飞行时长约12小时25分钟,使用波音777-300ER飞机。该航班起始于台北(TPE)。TPE-BKK-LHR整个航程约17小时15分钟,含曼谷停留1小时15分钟。

  6、xinjiapohangkongmosikeduomojieduowozhixiusidun(dme-iah)hangxianyue9553gongli,feixingshizhangyue12xiaoshi15fenzhong,shiyongboyin777-300erfeiji。gaihangbanqishiyuxinjiapo(sin)。sin-dme-iahzhenggehangchengyue24xiaoshi25fenzhong,hanmosiketingliu1xiaoshi30fenzhong。

  7、华航及长荣航空都运营曼谷至阿姆斯特丹(BKK-AMS)航线的第五航权航班,航线9217公里。华航使用空客A340-300欢乐彩飞机,用时12小时25分钟,长荣使用波音777-300ER飞机,用时11小时55分钟。这两个航班均起始于台北。

  lingwai,daxidihangkongbalizhiluoshanji(cdg-lax)hangxian9125gongli,feixingshizhang12xiaoshi,shiyonga340-300feiji。buguo,gaihangbanhouxujiangfeiwangfashubolinixiyadepabiti。minhangjiezhichu,fashubolinixiyashishuyufaguode,lilunshangbunengsuanshidiwuhangquanhangban。

  8、xinjiapohangkongyousanfanshizhishouerrenchuan(sfo-icn)hangxian9106gongli,feixingshizhang12xiaoshi25fenzhong,shiyongboyin777-300erfeiji。sfo-icn-sinhangxianzhenggehangchengyue19xiaoshi40fenzhong。

  9、新西兰航空欢乐彩由伦敦希思罗至洛杉矶(LHR-LAX)航线8781公里,飞行时长11小时30分钟,使用波音777-300ER飞机。在洛杉矶停留2小时后,航班继续飞往奥克兰(AKL)。LHR-LAX-AKL全程耗时达26小时30分钟。

  10、马来西亚航空公司与新加坡航空都运营洛杉矶至东京成田(LAX-NRT)航线第五航权航班,距离8773公里,飞行时长11小时30分钟。新航使用空客A380欢乐彩,而马航使用波音777-200飞机。

  11、xinjiapohangkongyoubasailongnazhishengbaoluo(bcn-gru)hangxian8742gongli,feixingshizhang11xiaoshi10fenzhong,shiyongboyin777-300erfeiji。sin-bcn-gruquanchenghaoshida26xiaoshi,baokuobasailongnatingliu1xiaoshi20fenzhong。

  12、长荣航空由曼谷至维也纳(BKK-VIE)航线8459公里,飞行时长11小时10分钟,使用空客A330-200飞机。从台北至维也纳全程需16小时。不过华航运营有台北至维也纳的直达航班,只需12小时30分钟。

欢乐彩  13、zhongguoguojihangkonggongsiyoumadelizhishengbaoluo(mad-gru)hangxian8356gongli,feixingshizhang11xiaoshi10fenzhong,shiyongkongkea330feiji。gaihangbanqishiyubeijingshoudouguojijichang。

  14、新西兰航空由洛杉矶至拉罗汤加(LAX-RAR)航线7156公里,飞行时长10小时,使用波音767-300飞机,之后飞往奥克兰。不过,拉罗汤加所在的科克群岛是新西兰的一部分。

  15、阿联酋航空欢乐彩由悉尼至曼谷(SYD-BKK)航线7503公里,飞行时长9小时25分钟,使用波音777-300ER飞机。这实际上是一系列的航班: 基督城经悉尼、曼谷至迪拜,全程21小时50分钟。

  澳门完全有条件拓展“第五航权”

  shouxianshifalvzhidufangmian: 《aomenjibenfa》guiding,aomentebiexingzhengquweidandudeguanshuidiqu,baochiziyougangdiwei,shixingziyoumaoyizhengce,baozhanghuowu、wuxingcaichanhezibendeliudongziyou,jingzhongyangrenminzhengfujutishouquankezixingzhidingminyonghangkongdegexiangguanlizhidu。

  youle《jibenfa》debaozhang,aomentebiexingzhengqukeyushijiegediqianshuminhangxieding,ziyouduyuanbineidideshengshihezizhiquda。

  zaozai2004nian,aomenminhangjujiuyutaiguoquanmiankaifangle“diwuhangquan”。dangnian9yue16ri,taiguojiaotongbuyuaomenminhangjuzaimangujiucujinliangdikongyunshichangfazhanjinxingshangtao,shuangfangxiudingleliangdihangbanxiedingdebufentiaokuanbingqianshulexindeliangjiebeiwanglu。xinxiudingdehangbanxiedingtiaokuanjixindeliangjiebeiwanglubaokuo: quanmianquxiaoduiyunli、bancijizhidingkongyunqiyedexianzhi、quanmiankaifang“diwuhangquan”,yijirongxuduozhongxingshidedaimagongxiang(baokuobenfangdaimagongxiang)。ciwai,taiguominhangjuyizaishangtaoqijianzhidinglesijiataiguokongyunqiyetigongliangdidehangbanhuanlecai。

  根据澳门与泰国于1995年签署的航班协定及旧的谅解备忘录,两地只可有限制地互换“第五航权”,运力则限于每边每星期七班,而每边亦只可指定一家空运企业提供运力。由于泰国一向是港澳居民旅游的热门地点,随着澳门国际机场在同年引进“亚洲航空”开拓澳门与曼谷之间的低成本航线,以及“澳门航空”与“泰国航空”准备建立代码共享合作等,两地间的航空运输需求不断扩大,加上“自由行”开放政策,除却本澳居民前往泰国旅游人数增加外,香港及内地人士经澳门前往该地的旅游人数亦日益趋增,旧的运力已不敷应用。为迎合市场需求,两地民航当局遂进行商讨,最终达成了全面开放“第五航权”的协议。

  2004年7月,澳门国际机场引进全亚洲最大、基地设在马来西亚的低成本航空公司“亚洲航空”、开辟澳门往返曼谷及吉隆坡两条低成本民航客运航线欢乐彩,之后,总部设在新加坡的“老虎航空”亦于2005年3月进入了澳门民航运输市场,提供新加坡连接澳门的民航运输欢乐彩,虎航并于2006年上半年利用澳门与新加坡之间的“第五航权”,增设新加坡经澳门到菲律宾马尼拉市克拉克机场的航线。

欢乐彩  2006nian,aomentequyumalaixiyadachenglequanmiankaifang“diwuhangquan”dexieyi。tongnian4yue20ri,aomenminhangjuyumalaixiyajiaotongbuqianshulexindeliangjiebeiwanglu。aomenyumalaixiyadeshuangbianhangbanxiedingjijiudeliangjiebeiwangluyuyijiujiuwunianqianshu。genjujiudeliangjiebeiwanglu,yunlizhixianyugefangmeixingqiqiban,erhangxianzhibaokuolianggeyanyuandian。xinqianshudebeiwangluquanmianquxiaoduiyunli、banci、jixingjiyiyuandianshumudexianzhi,bingqiequanmiankaifang“diwuhangquan”,weiliangdidehangkongkehuoyundefazhandailaigengyoulidetiaojian。

  2014nianchu,aomenhetaiwanqianshule“taiwanyuaomenjianhangkongyunshuxieyi”,weilaikehuorongliangbancibuxian,lingkaifangguizexingbaojizhubu“kaifangtiankong”。zaitongnianshiyuefentongguoshengxiaozhihou,xinhangyuequdaileshisannianqianyuanyoutaibeishihangkongyunshushangyetongyegonghuiyuaomenhangkonggufenyouxiangongsiqianshudetaiaohangyue。xinhangyueshengxiaohou,kehuoyunrongliangjiangyougefangmeizhouyiwanjiuqiansibaizuo、sibaidun,zengweirongliangbancibuxian,shuangfanghangkonggongsijunkezixingyishichangxuqiujuedingfeihangbanci。ciwai,hangyuezhongbuzaixuminggefangkejingyingtaiaohangxianzhihangkonggongsimingchengjiqibancirongliang,ershibizhaoyibanguojihangyue,youshuangfanggeziyineibuguidingzhidingyezheyingyun。

欢乐彩  xinhangyueyejiangyidingqihangbanguanlideguizexingbaojinaru,weilaishuangfangyezheyutaizhong、hualian、taidong、magong、jinmen、tainan、jiayidenghangdianyuaomenjiandoukeshenqingjingyingguizexingbaoji,wurongliangbancixianzhi。taiaoqianshuxinhangyuehou,keshuoshi“bankaifangtiankong”。youyuyezheshangwuxuqiu,xinhangyueweitandaoyanyuanquan(diwuhangquan)。

  jinnianyouxuezhetichu,aomenyongyouzhongyangjiyudelinghuozizhuhangquan,congguojihuoyunlaikan,zaizhongguoneidishangweikaifangdiwu、diqihangquanshi,aomenzekeduliyuneidiheqitaguojiaqiandinghangyue、kaifanghangquan、zengjiahangxianhehangban,yongyoujiaodaziyoudu。“diwuhangquan”yunxuyidizhihangkonggongsizaiqidengjidiyiwaideliangdizhijianzaiyunkehuo,qihangbandeqidianbixuweidengjidi,zheiweiaomenfazhanzhuankouwuliuchuangzaoleyoulidetiaojian。“diqihangquan”dekaiqi,jieshenglewanglaizhongwaihangbandechengbenheshijian,weiaomenkonggangwuliudefazhankaituoleguangkuokongjian。

  guanzhuminhangyefazhandeaomenchuanmeirenwei,aomenshichangguimoyouxian,minhangyecunzaikeyuanbuzudexiantianwenti,guhangkonggongsikaitongdianduidiandezhihanghangxianyaoshenshenkaolvshuangbiankeyuannengfouzhichihangxianyingyun。touguoyunyongbenaode“diwuhangquan”,waidihangkonggongsikejingtingaomenzaifeiwangdisandi,jimibuzhihangkeyuanbuzudewenti,tongshifengfujumin、youkedewaiyoumudedixuanze,zheishiquanqiuminhangyeweilaidefazhanfangxiang。

  jintian,quanqiugedidouzai“kaifangtiankong”,zhubuquxiaotiankongdexianzhi,ruoumengkaifanghangkongshichanghou,hangkonggongsikezaikongzhichengbenqingkuangxiaziyouzuhehangxian,bianxiangxiyingengduolvkedafeijilvyou,cujinminhangyejilvyouyefazhan。xianshidongmengguojiayezheshouleisidegongzuo,jiakuaiminhangyefazhan。dangwaidihangqiyijianliqudao,jingguoqitajichangzhuanfeidisandi,jiuweibizaixuanzeaomen,jieshiaomenminhangyejiangbeibianyuanhua,zuihoushiqujingzhengli。yinci,aomenyeyouxuyaojiakuaituiguang“diwuhangquan”deyoushi,xiyinwaidihangkonggongsijingaomenzhuanfeiqitachengshi。

欢乐彩  qishi,minhangjiehebushaoaomenrendoumingbai: zhongyangzhengfujiaomendefazhandingweishi“shijielvyouxiuxianzhongxin”,ruguomeiyouyigesitongbadadeguojijichang,youzennengshixianzheiyimubiaoni?

  aomenhuiguibujiu,zhongyangzhengfujiuyouyiliyongdiwuhangquan,youwaiguohangkonggongsikaitongjingaomenzhineididuogechengshidehangxian,danyinyouguanbumenbuzhongshiercuoshiliangji。qishi,aomenbudanyoubiyaoyewanquanyoutiaojiankaifang“diwuhangquan”。sinianhou“aomenhangkong”dehangkongzhuanyingquanjiemanqianhou,quanmian“kaifangtiankong”kendinghuichengweitequzhengfu、minhangjiehelvyoujiezuiremendeyiti。zaizhongyangzhengfudezhichixia,aomentebiexingzhengquxuchongfenliyongguojiajiyudeteshuzhengce,tongguo“diwuhangquan”xiyinshijiegedidehangkonggongsijingtingaomenguojijichang,congerdafuzengjiaaomenguojijichangdehangxian、hangban、yunli、keyunjihuoyunliuliang,zaihuanlecai“shijielvyouxiuxianzhongxin”dedaolushangmaichuzuiguanjiandeyibu!


  综合前述,笔者建议:

  1、quedingliyongdiwuhangquanjiyanyuanquan,jiangaomenguojijichangcongduogongnengzhongxiaoxingguojijichangzhuanbianweizhongguolianjiepuyuxiguojiademenhuxingguojijichang;

  2、jianlilianjieshanghai、beijing、guangzhoudengneidichengshijingguoaomenzhidapuguolisibendehangxian;

欢乐彩  3、yuneididaxinghangkonggongsihezuo,xiyinzhangsanjiaojingjidai、zhusanjiaojingjidaiderenliu、wuliu、zijinliucongaomenzouxiangpuyuxiguojia,peiheguojia“shisanwu”guihuaji“yidaiyilu”jiyu;

  4、hangkongyunshuchanyepeiheaomentequzhengfujingjishiduduoyuanzhuanxingfazhan,maixiang“hangxianduoyuan”;

  5、chongfenliyongjijiangjungongdegangaozhudaqiao,xiyinzhujiangdongxiliangandejingmaohezuoheyuegangaosandihezuofazhan,yihuanjiexianggangguojijichanghuanlecaidisantiaopaodaodailaidehuanjing、kongyudeyali;;

  6、touguohangkongyefazhankuodaaomenbendilvyou、jinrong、maoyi、wuliu、ranyou、yiliao、huanlecaidengbutonglingyuxingyedefazhankongjian。


  注释:

欢乐彩  1. “aoyituidiwuhangquanyoushimianbianyuanhua”,2014nian12yue23ri《aomenribao》。

  2. tongshangzhu。

  3. john f. o’ connell and george williams, england: key strategic developments of air transport in the 21st century, ashgate publishing limited, 2011, pp. 211-233.

  4. ason,“quanqiuzuizhangdiwuhangquanhangxiantop15”,《minhangziyuanwang》2014nian4yue25ri“minhangyixun”,yuanzuozhe jeffrey。

  5. xuwei、lianzhaotong: “aomenhangkongwuliufazhanqianjingyucelvefenxi”,2013nian2yue17ri《aomenribao》。

欢乐彩  6. yongyi: “pannanhangnengweiaomenguojijichangdailaixinqixiang”, 2015nian1yue30ri《xinhuaaobao》。

2荐闻榜

延伸阅读: 澳门 航权 李家祥
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